In 2014, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) passed the Village Law, which aims to support poverty reduction, improve service delivery, promote community harmony, and bring citizens and the state closer together, by increasing the voice of local communities in development decisions. There are some early signs that some villages are taking advantage of these new opportunities. Evidence indicates that most villages are investing in small-scale infrastructure projects, which improve access to critical needs such as roads and irrigation. However, these investments have only led to marginal improvements to village Village Development Index (IPD) scores and are unlikely to create new economic opportunities, increase human capital, or transform livelihoods. Optimising the implementation of the Village Law is a long-term process that will necessitate policy adjustments as local realities change. These policy briefs highlight four key issues stand out with respect to improving Village Law implementation in the short term.