West Nusa Tenggara – known as NTB – has a population of 4.7 million and is located to the east of Bali. The 2018 earthquake resulted in severe infrastructure, economic, and social damage, and claimed over 500 lives. The district of Lombok Utara was the most severely affected with nearly 90% of all infrastructure destroyed.
The poverty rate in NTB is 15%, with some wide regional variations (BPS, 2018). Lombok Utara has the highest poverty rate at 32%, while the other KOMPAK target districts had poverty rates below 20%.
Since 2016, KOMPAK has been supporting the Provincial Government of NTB and four districts: Lombok Utara, Lombok Timur, Sumbawa and Bima.
KOMPAK’s support to NTB for 2019-2022 focuses on kecamatan and village strengthening, public financial management, civil registration and vital statistics, basic education services, and local economic development. KOMPAK also supports the district and provincial governments to implement the National Strategy for Stunting Prevention.
Highlights of KOMPAK’s support in NTB include:
Operationalising the Ministry of Home Affairs Strategy for Village Apparatus Capacity Development (PKAD), particularly through piloting village government facilitators at the sub-district-level to support village governance.
Contributions towards improvements in civil registration and vital statistics, such as using supporting villages to fund, engage and train village registration officers. KOMPAK is also supporting Bappenas to develop national guidelines for providing CRVS services in post-disaster situations based on lessons from the response to the 2018 Lombok earthquake.
Piloting market linkage approach where coffee, seaweed and other local producers are supported to form business groups, develop partnerships with local businesses, and gain access to national buyers.
Supporting the Paradigta Academy to train and mentor women from villages to take more active roles in local government, village councils and women’s groups.
Expanding coverage and use of the village information system and kecamatan dashboard so that villages are able to better plan and prioritise services.
The University Building Village Program (UMD) has extended to East Lombok District. Preparations began in June 2019 with the drafting of KKN guidelines
Government of Lombok Utara District (KLU) has incised national achievement by winning the runner up position of Regional Development Award (PPD) Year 2018 out of 416 districts in Indonesia. PPD is the highest award given to local governments who have succeeded in planning, achieving good development, and creating innovations and breakthroughs in development planning.
For some people in remote parts of East Lombok, even a simple administrative issue can be a painful experience. Zaenal Abidin, a villager of Dasan Baru, Sugian Village, Sambalia Sub-district recalled when he had to travel long distances for three alternating days from his village to the capital of East Lombok.
Hafazah, 50, lives with her two children in Kalijaga Timur village, Lombok Timur district. She works as a farm labourer where she earns about 250 rupees a day (A$5). Her son, Artik, is mentally handicapped and sometimes becomes upset and damages their neighbour’s property. She has wanted to get medical treatment for Artik in Mataram, the capital city, but has been unable to access these services due to not having any legal identity documents for herself or Artik.
Abdul Malik, Secretary of the Sumbawa Health Office, looks proud when showing the new Batulenteh Health Centre located in Sumbawa district, West Nusa Tenggara. "All the equipment is new, and it has an ambulance. The patients definitely feel more comfortable getting treatment here," Malik said.
A series of earthquakes rocked the island of Lombok, in West Nusa Tenggara province (NTB), in July and August 2018. The National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) recorded 560 fatalities, 1,469 injured and 396,032 displaced. Physical damage included 83,392 damaged private dwellings, with 3,540 public and social facilities also damaged. By region, the most serious damage and losses caused by the Lombok earthquakes were mostly confined to North Lombok district. In addition to the casualties and physical damage, the Lombok earthquake also meant that many people lost important legal documents, such as identity cards (KTP), birth certificates (AK), family cards (KK) and marriage certificates (AP).
The Australian Government through KOMPAK (Kolaborasi Masyarakat dan Pelayanan untuk Kesejahteraan) program, in partnership with the Government of Indonesia, supports the poverty eradication programs in accordance with the National Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2014-2019.
Kementerian Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (BAPPENAS) telah meluncurkan kajian, ’Menemukan, Mencatat, Melayan: Kelahiran dan Kematian di Indonesia.’ Kegiatan ini memberikan sosialisasi atas temuan dan rencana program untuk melembagakan identitas hukum dan sistem CRVS untuk layanan dasar.
This note draws on a longitudinal study (Sentinel Villages) that investigated the patterns of participation, transparency and accountability under Village Law between 2015 and 2018. The findings from this research indicate that, since the introduction of Village Law, levels of community participation in village meetings (musdes), while relatively stable, continue to be low at around 16%. Participation patterns are also not broad-based and inclusive, with participation mostly from the elites (male, well off and socially engaged), and limited participation from women or other marginalized groups. Since 2014, village governments have improved on key metrics of transparency, disclosing and sharing more information. However, there was an overall low level of awareness at the village level on village programs, budgets, and plans. Under Village Law, systems of upward accountability and reporting have been strengthened. This has not been matched with similar progress on systems of downward (social) accountability to the community. Strengthening participation, transparency and accountability, necessitates each actor to play its role effectively, and particularly realising the full potential and role of the village community, facilitators, and the Village Council (Badan Permusyawarahan Desa or BPD).
The role of the local government in village development is largely defined by the Local Government Law (UU 23/2014), which forms the legal basis for local government regulations related to organization and functions of local technical agencies in providing guidance and supervision to village governments. Both the Village Law (UU 6/2014) and Local Government Law (UU 23/2014), which were passed in the same year, define authorities of village governments and local governments, respectively. However, these two laws provide different guidance on the role of local governments in supporting and supervising village governments. The Local Government Law and its derivative regulations mandate a critical role of district government agencies to oversee villages (particularly the District Agency for Village Community Empowerment and Sub-district), which differentiates the role of district government and villages related to village and community empowerment affairs. Current efforts to align the Local Autonomy Law and Village Law through a revised government regulation on concurrent government affairs are expected to address the gaps and conflicts in these laws. In the meantime, some district governments have initiated local regulations and positioned the local government as a critical facilitator for village development.
There has been a ten-fold increase in village expenditures on infrastructure between 2012 and 2016; however, the quality of the infrastructure over the same period has declined. Most village funds are spent on infrastructure. In 2018, less than half of projects, 46%, met technical specifications (meaning the structures were built according to code), compared to 82% in 2012. Further, there has been an 80% drop in Operations and Maintenance (O&M) in the same period. The quantity and quality of technical assistance to villages is insufficient to meet the demand from villages. Local governments are mandated to provide supervision of infrastructure under the Village Law and PP47/2015, but face difficulties in fulfilling this role.