East Java is the second most populous province in Indonesia with a population of 39.3 million people. Comparatively, East Java is one of the better performing provinces in Indonesia.
The poverty rate in East Java is 11%, slightly above the national average of 9.8% (BPS, 2018). While the poverty rate is almost on par with the national average, East Java has the highest number of people living in poverty for KOMPAK’s target provinces. An estimated 4.3 million people live in poverty, more than all the other KOMPAK provinces combined.
KOMPAK in East Java
Since 2016, KOMPAK has been supporting the Provincial Government of East Java and four districts: Bondowoso, Lumajang, Pacitan and Trengggalek.
KOMPAK’s support to East Java Province for 2019-2022 focuses on kecamatan and village strengthening, public financial management, civil registration and vital statistics, basic health services, and local economic development. KOMPAK also supports the district and provincial governments to implement the National Strategy for Stunting Prevention.
Highlights of KOMPAK’s support in East Java include:
Operationalising the Ministry of Home Affairs Strategy for Village Apparatus Capacity Development (PKAD), particularly through piloting village government facilitators at the sub-district-level to support village governance.
Developing a pilot to support midwives track and assist pregnant women and new mothers, enabling regular follow up for ante- and post-natal care.
Contributions towards improvements in civil registration and vital statistics, such as using supporting villages to fund, engage and train village registration officers.
Providing technical assistance to district governments on integrating the minimum service standards for health and education into planning and budgeting documents and using poverty analysis tools to better target social protection programs.
Expanding coverage and use of the village information system and kecamatan dashboard so that villages are able to better plan and prioritise services.
“Serving the community and witnessing people getting the help that they need is a remarkable thing”, said Ardian.
The Australian Government through KOMPAK program supports the Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA) to develop Technical Assistance module on “Capacity of Sub-district to Eradicate Poverty through Basic Services and Productive Economy”, as part of the GOI Frontline Strategy.
In Indonesia, basic services are a mandatory function of regional governments as mandated by Law No. 23/2014 regarding Regional Governance. The managements of the basic services put their frontline service points in the sub-districts. These services include Junior High Schools (SMP), Community Health Centers (PHC), and personnel assigned to assist with administrative services. As a regional government agency (OPD) closest to the community, sub-districts can play an important role in ensuring that their citizens can access basic services.
Education Equity Innovation to Improve the Human Development Index
Since 2019, KOMPAK and SEKNAS FITRA have been piloting a community feedback mechanism, known as ‘Posko Aspirasi’ in 33 villages. The results from Tangkil village in Trenggalek district, East Java, show promising improvements.
“I am a PTPD Facilitator. We provide support to villages on developing and evaluating their APB Desa [Village Budgets]. We also assist villages use tools to help them with their planning and budgeting,” explained Darmujiadi, who provides technical support to village governments. He is based at the Pangul Sub-District Office in Trenggalek district, East Java.
Since 2016, KOMPAK has been providing support to the Pacitan District Government in East Java to establish village information systems. KOMPAK initially set up the systems in two sub-districts, and the success of this pilot has led the district government to expand to all villages in the district. Pacitan now has 100 percent coverage of village information systems, all funded by local governments.
Salim, a 65-year-old from Ngumbul village, Pacitan district, East Java, never had a birth certificate until a few months ago. “Previously, nobody at home had a birth certificate, including my children and grandchildren. We didn’t know the importance of one to help us access services from the government,” said Salim.
On a beautiful morning, village administrators were preparing to conduct a coordination meeting at the Village Meeting Hall in Glingseran, Wringin Sub-District, Bondowoso District, East Java. The meeting was called to discuss the development of tourism in the village, which had recently become a popular destination in the District.
This note draws on a longitudinal study (Sentinel Villages) that investigated the patterns of participation, transparency and accountability under Village Law between 2015 and 2018. The findings from this research indicate that, since the introduction of Village Law, levels of community participation in village meetings (musdes), while relatively stable, continue to be low at around 16%. Participation patterns are also not broad-based and inclusive, with participation mostly from the elites (male, well off and socially engaged), and limited participation from women or other marginalized groups. Since 2014, village governments have improved on key metrics of transparency, disclosing and sharing more information. However, there was an overall low level of awareness at the village level on village programs, budgets, and plans. Under Village Law, systems of upward accountability and reporting have been strengthened. This has not been matched with similar progress on systems of downward (social) accountability to the community. Strengthening participation, transparency and accountability, necessitates each actor to play its role effectively, and particularly realising the full potential and role of the village community, facilitators, and the Village Council (Badan Permusyawarahan Desa or BPD).
The role of the local government in village development is largely defined by the Local Government Law (UU 23/2014), which forms the legal basis for local government regulations related to organization and functions of local technical agencies in providing guidance and supervision to village governments. Both the Village Law (UU 6/2014) and Local Government Law (UU 23/2014), which were passed in the same year, define authorities of village governments and local governments, respectively. However, these two laws provide different guidance on the role of local governments in supporting and supervising village governments. The Local Government Law and its derivative regulations mandate a critical role of district government agencies to oversee villages (particularly the District Agency for Village Community Empowerment and Sub-district), which differentiates the role of district government and villages related to village and community empowerment affairs. Current efforts to align the Local Autonomy Law and Village Law through a revised government regulation on concurrent government affairs are expected to address the gaps and conflicts in these laws. In the meantime, some district governments have initiated local regulations and positioned the local government as a critical facilitator for village development.
There has been a ten-fold increase in village expenditures on infrastructure between 2012 and 2016; however, the quality of the infrastructure over the same period has declined. Most village funds are spent on infrastructure. In 2018, less than half of projects, 46%, met technical specifications (meaning the structures were built according to code), compared to 82% in 2012. Further, there has been an 80% drop in Operations and Maintenance (O&M) in the same period. The quantity and quality of technical assistance to villages is insufficient to meet the demand from villages. Local governments are mandated to provide supervision of infrastructure under the Village Law and PP47/2015, but face difficulties in fulfilling this role.