East Java is the second most populous province in Indonesia with a population of 39.3 million people. Comparatively, East Java is one of the better performing provinces in Indonesia.
The poverty rate in East Java is 11%, slightly above the national average of 9.8% (BPS, 2018). While the poverty rate is almost on par with the national average, East Java has the highest number of people living in poverty for KOMPAK’s target provinces. An estimated 4.3 million people live in poverty, more than all the other KOMPAK provinces combined.
KOMPAK in East Java
Since 2016, KOMPAK has been supporting the Provincial Government of East Java and four districts: Bondowoso, Lumajang, Pacitan and Trengggalek.
KOMPAK’s support to East Java Province for 2019-2022 focuses on kecamatan and village strengthening, public financial management, civil registration and vital statistics, basic health services, and local economic development. KOMPAK also supports the district and provincial governments to implement the National Strategy for Stunting Prevention.
Highlights of KOMPAK’s support in East Java include:
Operationalising the Ministry of Home Affairs Strategy for Village Apparatus Capacity Development (PKAD), particularly through piloting village government facilitators at the sub-district-level to support village governance.
Developing a pilot to support midwives track and assist pregnant women and new mothers, enabling regular follow up for ante- and post-natal care.
Contributions towards improvements in civil registration and vital statistics, such as using supporting villages to fund, engage and train village registration officers.
Providing technical assistance to district governments on integrating the minimum service standards for health and education into planning and budgeting documents and using poverty analysis tools to better target social protection programs.
Expanding coverage and use of the village information system and kecamatan dashboard so that villages are able to better plan and prioritise services.
“Serving the community and witnessing people getting the help that they need is a remarkable thing”, said Ardian.
The Australian Government through KOMPAK program supports the Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA) to develop Technical Assistance module on “Capacity of Sub-district to Eradicate Poverty through Basic Services and Productive Economy”, as part of the GOI Frontline Strategy.
In Indonesia, basic services are a mandatory function of regional governments as mandated by Law No. 23/2014 regarding Regional Governance. The managements of the basic services put their frontline service points in the sub-districts. These services include Junior High Schools (SMP), Community Health Centers (PHC), and personnel assigned to assist with administrative services. As a regional government agency (OPD) closest to the community, sub-districts can play an important role in ensuring that their citizens can access basic services.
Education Equity Innovation to Improve the Human Development Index
Since 2019, KOMPAK and SEKNAS FITRA have been piloting a community feedback mechanism, known as ‘Posko Aspirasi’ in 33 villages. The results from Tangkil village in Trenggalek district, East Java, show promising improvements.
“I am a PTPD Facilitator. We provide support to villages on developing and evaluating their APB Desa [Village Budgets]. We also assist villages use tools to help them with their planning and budgeting,” explained Darmujiadi, who provides technical support to village governments. He is based at the Pangul Sub-District Office in Trenggalek district, East Java.
Since 2016, KOMPAK has been providing support to the Pacitan District Government in East Java to establish village information systems. KOMPAK initially set up the systems in two sub-districts, and the success of this pilot has led the district government to expand to all villages in the district. Pacitan now has 100 percent coverage of village information systems, all funded by local governments.
Salim, a 65-year-old from Ngumbul village, Pacitan district, East Java, never had a birth certificate until a few months ago. “Previously, nobody at home had a birth certificate, including my children and grandchildren. We didn’t know the importance of one to help us access services from the government,” said Salim.
On a beautiful morning, village administrators were preparing to conduct a coordination meeting at the Village Meeting Hall in Glingseran, Wringin Sub-District, Bondowoso District, East Java. The meeting was called to discuss the development of tourism in the village, which had recently become a popular destination in the District.
This study is aimed at evaluating the UMD model in order to get the main learning points for increasing the effectiveness and dissemination of the UMD model in the future. The evaluation was carried out in three provinces, Aceh, East Java, and South Sulawesi where KOMPAK had supported the previous UMD model KKN trials. During the trial, the universities that received support were the Ar-Raniry State Islamic University (UIN) Banda Aceh in Aceh, Jember University (UNEJ) in East Java, Parahyangan Catholic University in West Java and UIN Alauddin Makassar in South Sulawesi. In South Sulawesi, the scope of this evaluation was expanded to see lessons learned in the implementation of the UMD model of KKN in Pangkajene and Islands (Pangkep) districts which specifically received technical support from KOMPAK. The Pangkep Government has signed an agreement on the implementation of the Thematic KKN UMD with a number of universities and invited KKN students from UNEJ to implement the UMD model. In this evaluation, the research team interviewed 61 respondents (40 male respondents, 21 female respondents), and made direct observations in seven villages in three provinces where UMD activities were carried out by University partner.
Increasing the capacity of the camat as an effort to reduce poverty as stipulated in the 2015-2019 RPJMN is in line with the important considerations for the presence of sub-districts in the context of implementing regional autonomy which aims to bring services closer to the community. In practice, the sub-district represents the government at a higher level who is in direct contact with the community. This strategic position makes the sub-district play an important role in terms of coordination, facilitation, and maintaining security and order in its territory. There is ample room for sub-districts to play a more optimal role in providing basic services and a productive economy for the poor and vulnerable. To be able to carry out the role of the sub-district which is expected in the context of providing basic services, the camat and its apparatus need to be increased in capacity so that they are able to carry out their authority optimally so that they are able to overcome poverty through the provision of basic services and a productive economy. The results of this module also show the importance of increasing the capacity of the camat in carrying out the delegated authority in addition to the need to delegate some of the powers to the camat. Both of these are needed to support the role of the sub-district in: (i) implementation of accountability mechanisms for service providers to the public; (ii) data collection to improve the quality of planning and budgeting; and (iii) guidance and supervision of villages and sub-districts in optimizing the use of resources for the provision of basic services.
This guideline can be used by the sub-district head as a reference for optimizing the role of the sub-district in providing guidance and supervision of the village government. This guideline also aims to integrate all forms of service to the village that are carried out by many parties so that they are integrated in the same place.