East Java is the second most populous province in Indonesia with a population of 39.3 million people. Comparatively, East Java is one of the better performing provinces in Indonesia.
The poverty rate in East Java is 11%, slightly above the national average of 9.8% (BPS, 2018). While the poverty rate is almost on par with the national average, East Java has the highest number of people living in poverty for KOMPAK’s target provinces. An estimated 4.3 million people live in poverty, more than all the other KOMPAK provinces combined.
KOMPAK in East Java
Since 2016, KOMPAK has been supporting the Provincial Government of East Java and four districts: Bondowoso, Lumajang, Pacitan and Trengggalek.
KOMPAK’s support to East Java Province for 2019-2022 focuses on kecamatan and village strengthening, public financial management, civil registration and vital statistics, basic health services, and local economic development. KOMPAK also supports the district and provincial governments to implement the National Strategy for Stunting Prevention.
Highlights of KOMPAK’s support in East Java include:
Operationalising the Ministry of Home Affairs Strategy for Village Apparatus Capacity Development (PKAD), particularly through piloting village government facilitators at the sub-district-level to support village governance.
Developing a pilot to support midwives track and assist pregnant women and new mothers, enabling regular follow up for ante- and post-natal care.
Contributions towards improvements in civil registration and vital statistics, such as using supporting villages to fund, engage and train village registration officers.
Providing technical assistance to district governments on integrating the minimum service standards for health and education into planning and budgeting documents and using poverty analysis tools to better target social protection programs.
Expanding coverage and use of the village information system and kecamatan dashboard so that villages are able to better plan and prioritise services.
“Serving the community and witnessing people getting the help that they need is a remarkable thing”, said Ardian.
The Australian Government through KOMPAK program supports the Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA) to develop Technical Assistance module on “Capacity of Sub-district to Eradicate Poverty through Basic Services and Productive Economy”, as part of the GOI Frontline Strategy.
In Indonesia, basic services are a mandatory function of regional governments as mandated by Law No. 23/2014 regarding Regional Governance. The managements of the basic services put their frontline service points in the sub-districts. These services include Junior High Schools (SMP), Community Health Centers (PHC), and personnel assigned to assist with administrative services. As a regional government agency (OPD) closest to the community, sub-districts can play an important role in ensuring that their citizens can access basic services.
Education Equity Innovation to Improve the Human Development Index
Since 2019, KOMPAK and SEKNAS FITRA have been piloting a community feedback mechanism, known as ‘Posko Aspirasi’ in 33 villages. The results from Tangkil village in Trenggalek district, East Java, show promising improvements.
“I am a PTPD Facilitator. We provide support to villages on developing and evaluating their APB Desa [Village Budgets]. We also assist villages use tools to help them with their planning and budgeting,” explained Darmujiadi, who provides technical support to village governments. He is based at the Pangul Sub-District Office in Trenggalek district, East Java.
Since 2016, KOMPAK has been providing support to the Pacitan District Government in East Java to establish village information systems. KOMPAK initially set up the systems in two sub-districts, and the success of this pilot has led the district government to expand to all villages in the district. Pacitan now has 100 percent coverage of village information systems, all funded by local governments.
Salim, a 65-year-old from Ngumbul village, Pacitan district, East Java, never had a birth certificate until a few months ago. “Previously, nobody at home had a birth certificate, including my children and grandchildren. We didn’t know the importance of one to help us access services from the government,” said Salim.
On a beautiful morning, village administrators were preparing to conduct a coordination meeting at the Village Meeting Hall in Glingseran, Wringin Sub-District, Bondowoso District, East Java. The meeting was called to discuss the development of tourism in the village, which had recently become a popular destination in the District.
This guideline can be used by the sub-district head as a reference for optimizing the role of the sub-district in providing guidance and supervision of the village government. This guideline also aims to integrate all forms of service to the village that are carried out by many parties so that they are integrated in the same place.
The Village Medium Term Development Plan is a village planning document which embodies the vision and mission of the elected village head. This guide has been prepared so that it can be used by the Village Governance Facilitator (PTPD), village government apparatus, village council, and other stakeholders involved in the village development planning as a reference in improving village development quality, while still involving all levels of society and accommodating development needs which become the village priority in accordance to the village head's vision and mission. This guide also aims to ensure that the vulnerable groups are not only physically involved, but is also participated in the process and voicing their needs.
This note draws on a longitudinal study (Sentinel Villages) that investigated the patterns of participation, transparency and accountability under Village Law between 2015 and 2018. The findings from this research indicate that, since the introduction of Village Law, levels of community participation in village meetings (musdes), while relatively stable, continue to be low at around 16%. Participation patterns are also not broad-based and inclusive, with participation mostly from the elites (male, well off and socially engaged), and limited participation from women or other marginalized groups. Since 2014, village governments have improved on key metrics of transparency, disclosing and sharing more information. However, there was an overall low level of awareness at the village level on village programs, budgets, and plans. Under Village Law, systems of upward accountability and reporting have been strengthened. This has not been matched with similar progress on systems of downward (social) accountability to the community. Strengthening participation, transparency and accountability, necessitates each actor to play its role effectively, and particularly realising the full potential and role of the village community, facilitators, and the Village Council (Badan Permusyawarahan Desa or BPD).