Central Java is the third most populated province in Indonesia with a population of 34.3 million. Central Java is one of the overall better-performing provinces in Indonesia. However, regional disparities exist with rural areas being predominantly poorer.
The poverty rate in Central Java is 11%, slightly above the national average of 9.8% (BPS, 2018). However, in two KOMPAK districts – Brebes and Pemalang – the poverty rate is 19% and 17% respectively. The large population of Central Java also means it has a large overall number of people living in poverty, about 3.9 million.
Since 2016, KOMPAK has been partnering with the Provincial Government of Central Java to support three districts: Brebes, Pekalongan and Pemalang.
KOMPAK’s support to Central Java Province from 2019 to 2022 focuses on kecamatan and village strengthening, public financial management, civil registration and vital statistics, basic education services, and local economic development. KOMPAK also supports the district and provincial governments to implement the National Strategy for Stunting Prevention.
Highlights of KOMPAK’s support in Central Java include:
Operationalising the Ministry of Home Affairs Strategy for Village Apparatus Capacity Development (PKAD), particularly through piloting village government facilitators at the sub-district-level to support village governance.
Piloting a model to promote transparency in village governments, including trainings for community members on village budgets and establishment of women’s groups and community feedback mechanisms.
Contributions towards improvements in civil registration and vital statistics, such as using supporting villages to fund, engage and train village registration officers.
Supporting a ‘go back to school’ initiative in Pekalongan and Brebes districts, which is using household data collection to identify out-of-school children and link them with education services.
Expanding coverage and use of the village information system and kecamatan dashboard so that villages are able to better plan and prioritise services.
The Public Service Information Network (JIPP) of Central Java Province was soft launched on July 10, 2018 by the provincial government. JIPP was established as a platform to learn and disseminate innovations of public services from the provincial and district government in Central Java. Through JIPP, the public service providers in Central Java will be able to exchange information around innovative practices that have benefited the public.
The Government of Brebes district in cooperation with the Australian Government celebrated a significant achievement in exceeding their target of returning 1,000 children to school in 2017.
Indonesian government has been implementing various efforts to strengthen the Civil Registration and Vital Statistics (CRVS), among others, through national policy, budget investment and service delivery standard.
Innovation to pick up the ball for the acceleration of comfortable and reliable population administration services.
Innovation in discovering sustainable economic potential which carried out through collaborative Community Service programs (KKN) to reactivate neglected village assets.
Ismatun Amanah was only 12 years old when she decided to migrate to Jakarta to work as a housemaid. At such a young age, leaving home might not be her ideal dream. Yet as the ninth child of 10 siblings, she wanted to help her parents and no longer went to school anyway. She had no other choice.
Five sub-districts in Pekalongan District moved forward to the final round of the Acceleration of Population Services Administration Innovation Competition in November 2016. The finalists included Talun, Tirto, Kedungwuni, Karangdadap, and Petungkriyono Sub-districts.
This note draws on a longitudinal study (Sentinel Villages) that investigated the patterns of participation, transparency and accountability under Village Law between 2015 and 2018. The findings from this research indicate that, since the introduction of Village Law, levels of community participation in village meetings (musdes), while relatively stable, continue to be low at around 16%. Participation patterns are also not broad-based and inclusive, with participation mostly from the elites (male, well off and socially engaged), and limited participation from women or other marginalized groups. Since 2014, village governments have improved on key metrics of transparency, disclosing and sharing more information. However, there was an overall low level of awareness at the village level on village programs, budgets, and plans. Under Village Law, systems of upward accountability and reporting have been strengthened. This has not been matched with similar progress on systems of downward (social) accountability to the community. Strengthening participation, transparency and accountability, necessitates each actor to play its role effectively, and particularly realising the full potential and role of the village community, facilitators, and the Village Council (Badan Permusyawarahan Desa or BPD).
The role of the local government in village development is largely defined by the Local Government Law (UU 23/2014), which forms the legal basis for local government regulations related to organization and functions of local technical agencies in providing guidance and supervision to village governments. Both the Village Law (UU 6/2014) and Local Government Law (UU 23/2014), which were passed in the same year, define authorities of village governments and local governments, respectively. However, these two laws provide different guidance on the role of local governments in supporting and supervising village governments. The Local Government Law and its derivative regulations mandate a critical role of district government agencies to oversee villages (particularly the District Agency for Village Community Empowerment and Sub-district), which differentiates the role of district government and villages related to village and community empowerment affairs. Current efforts to align the Local Autonomy Law and Village Law through a revised government regulation on concurrent government affairs are expected to address the gaps and conflicts in these laws. In the meantime, some district governments have initiated local regulations and positioned the local government as a critical facilitator for village development.
There has been a ten-fold increase in village expenditures on infrastructure between 2012 and 2016; however, the quality of the infrastructure over the same period has declined. Most village funds are spent on infrastructure. In 2018, less than half of projects, 46%, met technical specifications (meaning the structures were built according to code), compared to 82% in 2012. Further, there has been an 80% drop in Operations and Maintenance (O&M) in the same period. The quantity and quality of technical assistance to villages is insufficient to meet the demand from villages. Local governments are mandated to provide supervision of infrastructure under the Village Law and PP47/2015, but face difficulties in fulfilling this role.